Replacement, Refinement & Reduction (3Rs)

In accordance with the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986,  research must be based on a clear set of principles - Replacement, Reduction and Refinement.  Known as the 3Rs, these are the principles on which animal research is conducted within Queen's.


Replacement - to use alternative methods wherever possible.  For example, using human participants, their tissues and cells and developing and using mathematical or computer models or animal cell lines.

Reduction - to use the minimum number of animals in an experiment or in an overall research study.

Refinement - to strive for the highest possible standard of animal care, use and welfare.

The University has been awarded a number of NC3Rs grants to enable our researchers to develop alternatives to animal research.  The projects have included: